Immunogram is a method of diagnostics of a condition of the immune system. The immune system is regulated by cellular and humoral link. When conducting immunograms are determined by the performance of all its components. This study is necessary to determine how the body can resist viral and infectious diseases.
To determine the immunogram of patient in the morning on an empty stomach is a blood from a finger or from a vein in two test tubes. One of them is dry and the other is a liquid that prevents the formation of a blood clot. If necessary, you can hold the immunity of saliva, tears and cerebrospinal fluid.
What are the indicators defined?
- Leukocytes – are white blood cells that identify and kill foreign microorganisms. The leukocytes are the immune system memory – when re-ingested foreign substances they can detect it and handle it much easier;
- Macrophages and phagocytes – are struggling with living and dead microorganisms. These cells absorb the inside of the foreign particles and digest. Macrophages also stimulate other immune system cells;
- Monocytes – the precursors of macrophages. They participate in the process of thrombosis, as well as form the cancer, protivopozarnyi and anti-infective immunity;
- Eosinophils are cells in allergic and antiparasitic immunity. In the presence of parasites in the body, this figure will be increased;
- Basophils – cells, which capture and absorb foreign elements;
- Immunoglobulin (Ig) M is a type of protein particle, is increased in acute inflammation;
- IgG as an indicator of inflammation, but these immunoglobulins are increased through time after the beginning of inflammatory reactions;
- IgA – found in saliva and the secret of the mucous membranes. Prevents penetration into the body of viruses and bacteria, as well as struggling with by toxic substances;
- IgE – indicator of allergic reactivity. The increase of immunoglobulin E is a symptom of Allergy or worm infestation.
Knowing the rules all indicators and their role in the formation of the immune system, doctors immunologists can imagine the nature of the disease and determine the body to cope with pathology or the need for help.
So, for example, suppurative inflammation leads to a decrease in the level of phagocytes, and a decrease of T-lymphocytes – an indicator of the presence of immunodeficiency (HIV). Viral infection stimulates increased production of lymphocytes, bacterial and leukocytes.
In which cases do you need the immunity?
The indication for the operation immunograms are:
- Immunodeficiencies primary and secondary origins;
- Parasitic lesions, especially helminthic infection;
- Frequent inflammatory diseases of the respiratory system;
- Infection of the digestive system accompanied with a decline of body weight;
- Autoimmune diseases: rheumatism, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic scleroderma;
- Chronic inflammation of any organs and systems;
- Immunodeficiency virus;
- Increased immune reactivity – allergies;
- Tumor pathology;
- Fungal infections;
- Pustular disease of the skin;
- Frequent viral colds;
- After treatment with immunosuppressive agents;
- After organ transplantation;
- After chemotherapy and radiation treatment of oncological pathology;
- Frequent recurrences of herpes viral infections;
- Recurrences of cytomegalovirus infection that causes mumps;
- The transfer of strong stress during pregnancy;
- Toxemia of pregnancy;
Rhesus-conflict during pregnancy.
Contraindications to the study:
- The menstrual period;
- Acute infectious diseases;
- Acute inflammatory diseases.
The interpretation of immunogram is engaged in the doctor-immunologist. The body’s immune system is fraught with many secrets, so the process of interpretation of figures difficult and time consuming, but it helps in the right treatment. For example, why do you always take antibacterial drugs for the treatment of diseases, if you should work on the immune system, restore its function and continue a full life without illnesses.